On November 4, 1834, the general assembly convened in Milledgeville, then Gov. Wilson Lumpkin made a plea on behalf of “the lunatics, idiots, and epileptics.” Georgia legislators passed a bill in 1837 for the creation of a state-operated insane asylum. After five years of construction, the Georgia State Lunatic Asylum opened in 1842. Over the years, the campus went through several name changes including; Georgia State Sanitarium, Milledgeville State Hospital, and Central State Hospital.
The first patient was a 30-year-old farmer from Macon named Tillman Barnett. He was admitted in December 1842, chained to a horse-drawn wagon by his wife and family. Barnett was described as violent and destructive. Unfortunately, he died of “maniacal exhaustion” before the following summer. He became the first casualty in the long and dark history of one of the nation’s most notorious institutions.
Care of the patients was based on an “institution as family” model which asserted that hospitals worked best when they resembled an extended family. Dr. Thomas Green, the head physician at the time, would eat with patients. He abolished the use of chain and rope restraints, allowing patients to roam freely. Many of the patients were Civil War veterans who were unable to be cared for by their families. By the 1870s, patient to physician ratio was a miserable 112 to 1, a number that would remain for over a century. Black patients were admitted after the Civil War, but were segregated to their own buildings until the 1940s.
The Central State Hospital campus was once the largest insane asylum in the United States, some say even the world. At its peak, there were over 12,000 patients. The campus was its own town with a school, church, fire and police departments by the 1950s. Central State Hospital even had its own power, water, and steam plants.
Today, Central State Hospital encompasses 1,750 acres with 200 buildings in various states of decay. In 2010, the Georgia Department of Behavioral Health and Development Disabilities announced the hospital would no longer be accepting new patients and portions of the facility would be closed. For more photos of Central State Hospital, as well as other locations from all over the state, check out my book Abandoned Georgia: Exploring the Peach State.